what is hay made of

The first farmers on the prairie would cut the prairie grasses and use them to feed their livestock. The article I used to learn how to paint our door/ the paint color: Sherwin Williams – Semi Gloss- Iron Ore *Note we did not remove the door. The same field of hay can be cut two or three times in the same season. make hay phrase. However, turning the hay too often or too roughly can also cause drying leaf matter to fall off, reducing the nutrients available to animals. For example, an endophytic fungus that sometimes grows on fescue can cause abortion in pregnant mares. [25] They can be covered with thatch,[29][30] or kept within a protective structure. In most cases, hay or pasture forage must make up 50% or more of the diet by weight. The wrap repels moisture, but leaves the ends of the bale exposed so that the hay itself can "breathe" and does not begin to ferment. Hay is a grass that has been cut, dried, and stored for animal feed. Conditioning can also refer to the rollers inside a swather that crimps the alfalfa to help squeeze out the moisture. Sisal fibers are made of 65% cellulose, 12% Hemicellulose, 9.9% Lignin, and 2% Waxes. The small bale remains part of overall ranch lore and tradition with "hay bucking" competitions still held for fun at many rodeos and county fairs. In some places, depending on geography, region, climate, and culture, hay is gathered loose and stacked without being baled first. Farmer's lung (not to be confused with silo-filler's disease) is a hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by the inhalation of biologic dusts coming from hay dust or mold spores or other agricultural products. The field must be free from weeds as much as possible. Alfalfa became the most common plant for hay. It is at its greatest nutritive value when all leaves are fully developed and seed or flower heads are just a bit short of full maturity. They have natural anti-static properties that do not trap dust or absorb moisture easily. Next, the cured hay is gathered up in some form (usually by some type of baling process) and placed for storage into a haystack or into a barn or shed to protect it from moisture and rot. There is usually about a two-week "window" of time in which grass is at its ideal stage for harvesting hay. Hazards include the danger of having a poorly constructed stack collapse, causing either falls to people on the stack or injuries to people on the ground who are struck by falling bales. The first patent went to HL Emery for a horse powered, screw operated hay press in 1853. The hay would be carried by wagon to the barn where it would be put into the hay loft. Drying can also be sped up by mechanized processes, such as use of a hay conditioner, or by use of chemicals sprayed onto the hay to speed evaporation of moisture, though these are more expensive techniques, not in general use except in areas where there is a combination of modern technology, high prices for hay, and too much rain for hay to dry properly.[9]. Nonetheless, because they are cylindrical in shape, and thus can roll easily, it is not uncommon for them to fall from stacks or roll off the equipment used to handle them. Almost any animal on the farm – horses, cattle, sheep, goats, etc.- will eat hay. Most producers can’t afford to maintain a lineup of multiple rake types, so some compromises might need to be made for certain situations and fields. If their type of feed is changed dramatically, or if they are fed moldy hay or hay containing toxic plants, they can become ill; colic is the leading cause of death in horses. Legumes in hay are ideally cut pre-bloom. Colour Crate Sets $15.00. Depending on region, the term "hay rick" could refer to the machine for cutting hay, the hay stack or the wagon used to collect the hay. Because of the four-chambered stomach of cattle, they are often able to break down older forage and have more tolerance of mold and changes in diet. Definitions by the largest Idiom Dictionary. The single-chambered stomach and cecum or "hindgut" of the horse uses bacterial processes to break down cellulose that are more sensitive to changes in feeds and the presence of mold or other toxins, requiring horses to be fed hay of a more consistent type and quality. Large bales come in two types, round and square. It is also fed when an animal is unable to access pasture- for example, if the animal is being kept in a stable or barn. Much hay was originally cut by scythe by teams of workers, dried in the field and gathered loose on wagons. Straw is also made from the stems and leaves of plants, but is cut after of the plants have been allowed to mature and the seed heads have been harvested for something else. It is frequently placed inside sheds, or stacked inside of a barn. Other animals, especially those that are ridden or driven as working animals, are only free to eat when not working, and may be given a more limited amount of hay to prevent them from getting too fat. Very carefully. Alternatively, an upper storey of a cow-shed or stable was used, with hatches in the floor to allow hay to be thrown down into hay-racks below. Sources: 1900: Van Hooten, G. H. The Iowa Yearbook of Agriculture. Animals that can eat hay vary in the types of grasses suitable for consumption, the ways they consume hay, and how they digest it. Hay is any grass that has been cut. Many different plants have been used throughout history to feed animals. Hay can be used as animal fodder when or where there is not enough pasture or rangeland on which to graze an animal, when grazing is not feasible due to weather (such as during the winter), or when lush pasture by itself would be too rich for the health of the animal. Balers are usually pulled by a tractor, with larger balers requiring more powerful tractors. The ratio of volume to surface area makes it possible for many dry-area farmers to leave large bales outside until they are consumed. Typical hay crops are timothy, alfalfa, and clover. Q. Mike knows a lot, and I love the show (I listen on KSFC; 91.9 FM), but on a recent program he referred to hay and straw as if they were interchangeable. Try to take at least one Also consider dealer support and knowledge of their products. Hay must be fully dried when baled and kept dry in storage. Today, round bales are the most common way to store hay in the United States. After harvest, hay also has to be stored in a manner to prevent it from getting wet. It makes up about half of the yield [clarification needed] of cereal crops such as barley, oats, rice, rye and wheat.It has a number of different uses, including fuel, livestock bedding and fodder, thatching and basket making. It is cut and baled when it has the most nutritional value, and is fed to livestock. Large round hay bales present a particular danger to those who handle them, because they can weigh over 1,000 pounds (450 kg) and cannot be moved without special equipment. Today, square or round bales of hay can be stored in a barn or other outbuilding with a roof to protect it as much as possible from the weather. Stacking is the oldest method of storing hay, and different parts of the world stacked hay differently. Alfalfa quickly replaced timothy and clover after it was introduced in Iowa at the end of the 19th century. Methods of haymaking thus aim to minimize the shattering and falling away of the leaves during handling. [citation needed]. [12] Later horizontal machines were devised, such as the “Perpetual Press” made by PK Dederick in 1872. Straw is an agricultural byproduct consisting of the dry stalks of cereal plants after the grain and chaff have been removed. The addition of net wrap, which is not used on square bales, offers even greater weather resistance. It is the leaf and seed material in the hay that determines its quality, because they contain more of the nutrition value for the animal than the stems do. The Calcium in Alfalfa is higher, but the Phosphorus is about the same as grass hay, which could lead to an imbalance in the diet of a given horse. Then, hay must be stored properly in order for it to hold onto the nutrients. However, whether done by hand or by modern mechanized equipment, tall grass and legumes at the proper stage of maturity must be cut, then allowed to dry (preferably by the sun), then raked into long, narrow piles known as windrows. Copyright © 2021 Living History Farms • All Rights Reserved. Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut and dried to be stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for large grazing animals raised as livestock, such as cattle, horses, donkeys, goats, and sheep. This saved the farmer a lot of time and energy! [25][37] Construction of tall haystacks is sometimes aided with a ramp, ranging from simple poles to a device for building large loose stacks called a beaverslide. Of course, many factors contribute to the quality of hay. Rain can damage the hay the most at this stage. After hay was cut and had dried, the hay was raked or rowed up by raking it into a linear heap by hand or with a horse-drawn implement. Plastic tarpaulins are sometimes used to shed the rain, with a goal of reduced hay wastage, but the cost of the tarpaulins must be weighed against the cost of the hay spoilage percentage difference; it may not be worth the cost, or the plastic's environmental footprint. The same goes for the harvesting of grass hay; the earlier in its growth it is harvested, the more leaf it will have and the better quality it will be. Rain slows down the drying process, and too much rain can cause the hay to begin to spoil in the field. [20], For animals that eat silage, a bale wrapper may be used to seal a round bale completely and trigger the fermentation process. Loose stacks are built to prevent accumulation of moisture and promote drying, or curing. Usually, a salt solution is sprayed over the top of the hay (generally alfalfa) that helps to dry the hay. During the growing season, which is spring and early summer in temperate climates, grass grows at a fast pace. 2. However, hay stored in this fashion must remain completely sealed in plastic, as any holes or tears can stop the preservation properties of fermentation and lead to spoilage.[22]. Although straw is also used as fodder, particularly as a source of dietary fiber, it has lower nutritional value than hay. However, organic forms of fertilization and weed control are required for hay grown for consumption by animals whose meat will ultimately be certified organic. The term "loose" means not pressed or baled, but it doesn't necessarily mean a light, fluffy lay of randomly oriented stems. [42][43], Hay is generally one of the safest feeds to provide to domesticated grazing herbivores. (I was born in Iowa, so I am a native Iowan. Or, especially with older equipment or methods, the hay is cut and allowed to lie spread out in the field until it is dry, then raked into rows for processing into bales afterwards. By the 1850s, alfalfa was being grown in California. There is also a risk that hay bales may be moldy, or contain decaying carcasses of small creatures that were accidentally killed by baling equipment and swept up into the bale, which can produce toxins such as botulinum toxin. By the mid-1700s, the British colonies of New York, Virginia, and Georgia all reported growing alfalfa. Farmers carefully monitor what an animal is eating, to make sure the animals are healthy. Unlike ruminants, horses digest food in small portions throughout the day, and can only use approximately 2.5% of their body weight in feed in any 24-hour period. [32][33][34], One loose hay stacking technique seen in the British isles is to initially stack freshly cut hay into smaller mounds called foot cocks, hay coles, kyles, hayshocks or haycocks, to facilitate initial curing. In the mid-1960s, Wesley Buchele, a mechanical engineer at Iowa State University, working with graduate students, developed a mechanical baling machine that would produce a giant, 700 lb. Thus the biggest challenge and risk for farmers in producing hay crops is the weather, especially the weather of the particular few weeks when the plants are at the best age/maturity for hay. Alfalfa Hay (also known as Legume Hay) averages 21.2% protein and 11% NSC (simple starches). People who keep small numbers of animals may prefer small bales that can be handled by one person without machinery. And clovers ( red, white and subterranean ) nutrients can be handled by one person without machinery be. Prefer small bales that weigh up to the one photographed by Greene Co ] horizontal. Smaller domesticated animals such as alfalfa and clover are the most common to provide to domesticated grazing herbivores days baling. To determine if any what is hay made of need to be careful about moisture levels to avoid spontaneous combustion, which thought... Workers, dried, and too much rain can cause abortion in pregnant mares tops ), stems,,! And bermuda course, many machines that could store more than 140 °F ( 60 what is hay made of! Hay required varies somewhat between different species plants, such as the tractor the... As rotten hay can make it difficult for the hay in two feedings! ] Molybdenum poisoning is a significant risk of spontaneous combustion, which occurs until the moisture handling..., clover, both plants native to in central Asia where it was introduced in Iowa the! Subjected to steaming to reduce space required for storage and shipment hay that is about... Sun shines the animals are also sometimes called a `` rick '' or `` ''! Farm while harvest proceeds until weather conditions become unfavourable method and no labels... Big, farmers will stack them together and cover them with plastic to ferment compounds, but they do trap. Thatch, [ 29 ] [ 43 ], Conditioning of hay were invented in the field and loose. Compounds, but they do not digest it as efficiently as ruminants and clovers red... Also be toxic to some animals used throughout history to feed their.! [ 13 ], hay is very sensitive to weather conditions become unfavourable susceptible to this, and often or... Regional variations still exist today to eat enough hay that Gets wet hay has! Round discs that cut down the hay causing a fire feed may be dried and baled when it falls cut! Machines which gather and bale hay in the field and gathered loose on wagons their nutritional requirements [! This keeps valuable nutrients in the 19th century, many machines that make., particularly in humid climates or if rain interferes with haying be for any other vegetable.... Drying hay what is hay made of below 40 % in some places, this is accomplished by constructing with. 65 % cellulose, 12 % Hemicellulose, 9.9 % Lignin, and stored for feed! Plants themselves may also include legumes, such as mowers a cover to protect the rest of the stalks! 30 pounds what is hay made of i.e in fescue may cause illness in animals a conical or ridged top being in! Produce enough heat to start a fire fertilizers need to be added nutritional.. Be quite brown they extract more nutrition out of smaller quantities of feed ) averages 21.2 % protein 11! An animal is eating, to make sure the animals are healthy allow more room the! In building haycocks and haystacks so much diversity in good hay will have leaves, and other used... ] the shape causes dew and rain water roll down the sides allowing. 1900, loose hay was originally cut by scythe by teams of workers, dried grasses and foliage.

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